For this set of wide-ranging user needs, the scientists' analytical demands were not adequately satisfied in the versions of the tools used in the study, and only three of the 13 scientists continued to the Beyond Read-offs stage for deeper insights. The three scientists who engaged in Beyond Read-offs did not get very far in this stage. Thus results in this section depend more on interview responses than in previous sections. During interviews the scientists discussed insights they would like to have gained in the Beyond Read-offs stage, framed as questions and covering the following relationships:.
Conceptually and technologically, this reasoning required more immersion into biological uncertainty and incomplete knowledge than analysis so far had involved, and it required more deliberate inferential reasoning. Inferences included the use of multiple strategies and reasoning across scales. To draw inferences, scientists sought cues about localized biological events — conditions, contexts, and interactions that potentially influenced biological functional behaviors, changes, and self-regulation.
For example, the scientists coupled analysis of protein interactions and pathway networks to see if this cross referencing might suggest mediating groups of genes for a given disease. For these questions, the scientists went beyond read offs and, in doing so, expected to interact with the data with a great deal of user control. The scientists became stymied when interface displays did not afford adequate interactivity. Notably, multiple attributes pertaining to a gene were formatted as concatenated strings, and some fields themselves were defined as a compilation of many values — e.
For Beyond Read-off purposes, however, this data structuring obstructed the scientists from grouping and selecting items based on single attributes and from seeing just the selected items displayed and highlighted in the network view. Nor could the scientists color code or aggregate by individual not stringed field values.
Additionally, with this version of Cytoscape and with plugs ins other than MiMI available at the time, the scientists could not selectively extract sub-networks by trait e. As one of the three scientists participating in Beyond Read-offs commented in think-alouds:. These genes are involved in multiple concepts. Now I need to look at them biologically and single out just this one annotation. Is this concept up in the context of a cell that is "just resting" but down in a cell that is proliferative?
Causal inferences, moreover, had to be warranted and defensible. The scientists who engaged in Beyond Read-offs looked once more for statistical evidence that network structures had potential biological meaning and were not simply chance occurrences. For example, when the scientists used SAGA within MiMI-Cytoscape to match potentially meaningful sub-graphs embedded in the whole to canonical pathways, they wanted to know how confident they should be in the match, given the accuracy of the underlying similarity matching algorithm. The scientists also wanted to link to and revisit literature about relationships of interest to read details that would help in judging credibility.
Some of these overlapped with transition stage needs:. Unfortunately, with these versions of the tools, none of the scientists found enough of what they were looking for, and none was able yet to gain deep insights for building hypothetical stories. Results show many common patterns across cases in scientists' ways of knowing and reasoning but suggest, as well, that creating a match between a tool and a scientist's cognition might be specific to a scientist's domain specialization and analytical objectives.
The biostatistician, for example, as a statistics specialist distinctively cut short even her surface level insights for want of hard test statistics. The biomedical researcher, whose prime analytical objective during the Separating the Wheat from Chaff stage was to quickly hone in on relevant and previously unknown literature about her target gene family, also encountered impasses but in her case because of her distinct analytical objectives. In the rest of the field cases, results show that MiMI and MiMi-Cytoscape, which are emblematic of other bioinformatics tools, have advanced to enabling scientists to access and understand rich stores of heterogeneous data.
The scientists were able to make critical judgments and learn new things from the data. Moreover, these tools made major steps in providing surrogates for test statistics to help scientists achieve confidence. These advances have opened the realm of systems biology to countless everyday scientists in biomedicine.
But results also suggest that in making these tasks accessible the tools sparked scientists' motivations to go beyond read-offs. As results reveal, designs beyond read-offs have to differ in kind not just degree from designs for straightforward data extraction for affirmations or classifications. Admittedly, analytical integration for hypothesizing is a long exploratory process, and it may not be surprising or troubling that scientists did not achieve a well-developed hypothesis at the close of the observation periods.
But findings from this study — and from others — suggest that tools today are not sufficiently launching scientists on this long term hypothesizing process to begin with. This whole process requires integrating classification, mental modelling and narrative reasoning — that is, facilitating the move from lists to stories. Whether bioinformatics developers strive to build one tool or many to fulfil this purpose, the goal must be to support scientists in integrating complementary modes of reasoning and in interweaving "loose" and "strict" analyses for explanatory inquiries under uncertainty.
Supporting only one mode of reasoning isolated from the rest — regardless of which mode it is — or insufficiently supporting transitions between them impedes the formulation of hypotheses. One thing that is clear from the results in the Transition and Beyond Read-off stages is that "information delivery" is not enough to satisfactorily support this analytical flow and integration.
In the field study, a good deal of the data relevant to scientists' transitional thinking and causal mental modelling was available "deliverable" from the tools but was often hard to find or time-consuming to encode into graphics. Equally if not more important, available data were not represented as scientists needed them to be for the intellectual processes of mentally modelling causes and outcomes.
For example, the data were not represented in ways that conveyed or cued biological meaning and credibility. Moreover, for the manipulations of data that are prerequisite to constructing knowledge during causal mental modelling, the data often were not structured right, for example for users to cluster, filter, color code, and lay out graphs. As researchers in visual analytics show, different types of analysis tasks demand specific visual representations of knowledge. For example, users benefit most from side-by-side views — such as the network and tabular views in MiMI-Cytoscape — when their tasks involve detecting patterns of interest and making transitions to new modes of reasoning.
But they need single views rich in relevant information and conceptual associations when their goal is to understand causal relationships and diagnose problems [ 33 ]. Conceiving and then designing these rich views are vital but challenging. The scientists in the study did not engage seriously in narrative reasoning but research suggests that support for story building also differs dramatically from support for classification reasoning and read-offs.
For example, they may associate and synthesize their cumulatively generated knowledge to tell an hypothesized story about two potentially influential proteins in a localized context — the star actors and scene in the story. The story would capture how the proteins are encoded by genes that lie on separate disease-relevant chromosomes, how they function in a disease-related intracellular signaling pathway, and how evidence suggests a genetic variant that may cause one of the proteins to vary in structure, activation, and localization, thereby affecting variation in the other protein in disease susceptibility.
Noting the challenge of supporting this mode of synthesizing knowledge into convincing stories Kumar et al. Similarly, research shows that overly-formalized narrative objects and their properties do not effectively support narrative reasoning [ 27 ]. My field study results show that for the explorations scientists conduct in explanatory systems biology analyses, tool designs and scientists' cognition are mismatched in the following three ways:. Confidence in the data, tools, and one's own interpretations of knowledge representations was fundamental to scientists' willingness to engage in and continue engaging in systems biology analysis.
Validations occurred from the start during Confirmation and continued throughout the analysis. For Confirmation and Separating the Wheat from Chaff the scientists needed the following data and interactions for their validations: Surrogates for test statistics, such as provenance; counts of interactors, articles, and experiment types associated with an interaction; easy sorting of table fields to locate expected results; and explanations of tool algorithms for processing and integrating data.
These features and content were largely present but, at times, were incomplete. Resolving the incompleteness and thus the mismatches for these earlier stages of analysis is not particularly difficult to achieve technologically. Doing so would be a low cost way to enhance scientists' trust early on and possibly instil more tolerance for uncertainty later. It could be that the more confidence scientists gain early on, the more "forgiving" of the tool and data they will be later when dealing with the unavoidable incompleteness and uncertainty of contextualizing biological relationships. Results show that in later stages ambiguous concepts such as interaction, pathway, and molecule type became increasingly important to scientists' analysis and validation of potentially meaningful relationships.
Similarly, the scientists increasingly demanded statistical evidence, evidence that often is not easy to mine and provide technologically or that may be non-existent. The field study suggests that part of these complications to validation and consequent mismatches may be allayed if tools give scientists easy means for bringing in their own data and statistics so that they can integrate and analytically manipulate these data with their query results. The development of more statistical models or presentation of test statistics in which scientists can believe is also needed to reduce tool mismatches with validation needs and practices and to help scientists build confidence.
The importance of helping scientists make the transition from classification to model-based reasoning cannot be overemphasized. Given the high rate of attrition at this stage in the field study, it is clear that support in tools for this transition is as important as facilitating each of the stages itself. During this transition, scientists made judgments about the value of the displayed knowledge representations for their intended inferential purposes.
The scientists were not as concerned as earlier about the literal content of the data. Rather knowledge representations and their value to an analysis required data to be structured in ways that allowed the manipulations the scientists sought to perform to find causal relationships.
The scientists needed to see that they could manipulate views by interacting with a single value for an attribute, such as a non-stringed value for molecular function, pathway, or biological process. The scientists also needed to inter-relate select sets of attributes to draw inferences about possible chains of events and effects.
Moreover, the scientists needed some indication that they would be able to negotiate the meanings of ambiguous concepts relevant to relationships of interest vital to explanatory inferences, such as interaction type. Finally, they needed knowledge representations that cued them about the connections constituting a protein cluster, the purported strength of the connections, the biological implications, and statistical warrants for the clusters.
It was also during the Transition that the scientists checked to see if the tools adequately provided means for interacting with and transforming data in scientists' intended ways. Mismatches between tools and the cognitive transitions scientists made in the move from lists to explanations may be reduced if views of data and relationships more deliberately direct scientists' attention selectively — for example, to good biologically meaningful entry points in complex network associations.
The problem is not rich displays of networks and data per se. If presentations provide wrong or incomplete information or insufficiently emphasize relationships relevant to explanations ttention to only surface level data, analytical performance and accuracy for a higher order tasks suffer [ 34 , 35 ]. For networks, this relevance requirement means drawing a user's eye to the high dimensional relationships through color, layout, and groupings.
Additionally, mismatches for scientists' transitions to causal modelling may be diminished if tools provide better cues about conceptual relationships. Choices of layouts can provide such cues, with research in visual cognition showing that when the same connections between nodes are spaced dissimilarly users judge different relationships to be important [ 36 ]. Overall, building domain knowledge about relationships into designs- not delivering data elements per se — is crucial for overcoming transition-related mismatches. For causal mental modelling, the conceptual relationships that the scientists sought were fluid, dynamic, and not fully formalizable.
To uncover them through inference, the scientists expected to rearrange and transform relationships and to view the same data from many perspectives and levels of abstraction. They expected to differentiate normal from abnormal biological behaviors and inferentially distinguish causes from catalysts. In the process, they expected to be able to freely and easily change views of data relationships.
Mismatches occurred between expectations and tool support because representations that afforded classification earlier were now insufficient. Moreover, interactivity for data manipulation was not attuned to the explorations required for inference amid ambiguity, incomplete knowledge, and multiple scales. The necessity of this interactivity cannot be overemphasized. User controlled interactivity served as important a function in being able to produce new knowledge and gain deep insights as content.
For example, scientists expected to be able to recursively re-assemble relationships and potential causal associations spatial transformations in order to infer possible temporal events. Structuring layouts by regulatory relationships organized by biological region would signal interactions over time and space. Some scientists also spoke of wanting to transform workspaces and data relationships into views of overlaid networks — those of interacting gene products, canonical pathways, and diseases associated with pathways.
These presentations would have evoked biological situational awareness. Scientists knew they could not see actual representations of the dynamics and variability of the genomic and molecular biosystems they sought to analyze. They needed cues from the data and views to infer multi-dimensional chains or loops of actions and outcomes. They wanted certain content to be perceptually highlighted and wanted cues from layouts and groupings about potential biological meanings inherent in visible network configurations.
Additionally, side by side graphics e. Other bioinformatics studies have similarly articulated this need for tools to "go beyond simplistic graphical models and mere compliance with accepted standards to provide many different types of network views, each at a different level of abstraction" because relationships among proteins, interaction partners, and interaction types often differ based on a cell state or location [32, ]. Specifically, researchers have called for more pathway information, overlays and relationships between molecular interactions and pathways, views of regulatory relationships within pathway contexts, and molecular interactions in relation to many interconnected pathways at once [ 28 , 29 ].
Researchers also have argued that tools need to provide aggregates and details of the same elements, interactivity for selectively expanding neighbors of specified proteins, capabilities for users to specify semantic substrates for layouts, and sub-graphs of network motifs tied to biological concepts [ 10 , 29 ]. Results from the field study corroborate the centrality of these design issues and now show the direct connection between them and scientists' core processes of explanatory reasoning. Field study results also underscore the need to couple these views with adequate interactivity for data and view manipulation and with support for scientists' continuously interleaved validation processes.
Without addressing such design improvements, mismatches are likely to continue. In the current bioinformatics research literature, models of scientists' flows of analysis for systems biology explorations are incomplete. For design purposes, more comprehensive, empirical models of scientists' higher order cognition are prerequisites for creating tools that effectively and usefully match biomedical researchers' actual ways of knowing and reasoning. In this field study, as in other bioinformatics usability research, scientists could successfully pose and answer "What?
What hidden relationships innovatively mined from the literature show unexpected biological relationships? But the scientists — and biomedical researchers in general today — could not adequately achieve new explanatory insights into the how's and why's of biological associations and outcomes within and across biological regions. Given scientists' shared stages of analysis, their multiple complementary modes of reasoning, and their interplay of loose and strict analysis, it is clear why scientists in this study — as in other studies — more easily gained surface level insights than deep insights.
Tools strongly support surface level insights by categorizing and organizing data displays in ways that resonate with scientists' approaches to classifying data and judging relationships to be broadly interesting or not. By and large, scientists could perform these tasks through read-offs, and outcomes were motivating.
Yet once scientists gained surface insights, they wanted to do more. They wanted to construct credible hypotheses. Findings show that to facilitate deep insights and hypothesizing bioinformatics tools must do a better job of matching scientists' needs and practices. They have to better match scientists' processes for validating throughout analysis, their transition from classification to explanatory mental modelling, and their processes of mental modelling across scales and amid uncertainty. For design purposes, the field study results reveal the important role that technologies for systems biology analysis play in scientists' exploratory cognition.
Because tools are the prime workspaces in which biomedical researchers view and interact with representations of knowledge to further construct and transform knowledge for hypothesizing purposes, technologies shape the course and completeness of this analysis. To varying extents and with qualitative consequences, tools shape scientists' intentions and opportunities for causally exploring known and unknown biological associations according to the domain-driven standards of practice and excellence that they value.
As the field study shows, if tools do not match scientists' intentions scientists will likely downgrade their goals, no longer accepting a tool as an aid for formulating an hypothesis. From this perspective, effective translational biomedical research hinges on tool designs matching scientists' higher order cognition as influenced by their domain knowledge and analytical practices.
The results of this field study suggest design objectives and strategies that may reduce mismatches. More research, prototyping, and formative evaluations are needed before requirements can be specified at a fine enough conceptual grain to inform scope how many tools and tool designs in a widespread way. Toward this end, field study results suggest that design choices should be informed by objectives and strategies related to: generating trust, reducing search and analysis spaces during classification activities, contextualizing relationships for causal explanations, highlighting and cuing biologically meaningful concepts, and giving users flexible interactivity for core analytical moves and strategies.
The Supplemental Material provides more details about these design strategies. Creating optimal designs that support scientists in integrating the multiple modes of reasoning required for explanatory analysis under uncertainty is the next great frontier in bioinformatics usability. In our national center, NCIBI, the results of this study are now being addressed through many modifications and re-designs to the tools, aimed at overcoming the three mismatches described here.
The field study aimed to analyze biomedical researchers' higher order cognitive processes for formulating hypotheses during analyses of protein-protein interactions. Results needed to be framed in a way that could inform tool designs for greater usefulness for higher order reasoning. As in other human-computer interaction studies in bioinformatics [ 37 ], qualitative field methods were used to explore scientists' work practices and cognitive processes. Twelve biomedical experimentalists from a large university Medical Center were observed and afterwards interviewed as they analyzed protein-protein interactions and related biological concepts to gain novel insights into disease mechanisms.
Two cellular biology experimentalists from the Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology and one biostatistician from the School of Public Health were also observed and interviewed. Four of them worked in pairs, as shown by the groupings in the table. Observations averaged 1. Interviews were conducted after each observation, lasting on average 20 minutes and totalling 8. The scientists studied different problems, diseases, and relationships. They proceeded at their own paces and defined their own intentions, analytical tasks, moves and strategies. All the scientists were familiar with and had some experience in systems biology analysis.
At the time of the field study, the MiMI database was comprised of , molecules and , interactions integrated from the ten databases [ 38 ]. During the course of the study, MiMI evolved from an XML database to a relational database to facilitate multi-user and arbitrary query functionality.
Interacting with the graphics, scientists were able to select data from the network and tabular views, sort tables, lay out networks based on predefined layouts, zoom, pan, and through extensive operations perceptually encode and filter data. They were able to use Cytoscape's color coding visual mapping and other available plug-ins, e. In scientists' naturalistic settings one to two observers took notes with IRB consent.
IRB consent assured anonymity to participants, no risk to their work or performance evaluations, and the freedom to end their participation at any time. The scientists performed and thought-aloud during analysis. Sessions were not video- or audio-taped; participants' laboratory spaces were often too small and noisy. Scientists' processes for entering queries were not studied. The two observers and interviewers were experienced and skilled in taking notes rapidly. Observers recorded missteps — those the scientists noted and those they did not.
In think-aloud comments, scientists typically conveyed and observers captured various task objectives, intentions, deliberations, lines of reasoning, confusions, confirmations, judgments about emerging findings, reactions to impasses, and satisfaction. Observers did not interrupt scientists as they worked nor did they guide scientists toward "correct usages" of tools or tool features. Non-structured interviews after observations sessions focused on scientists' cognition and needs for support from the tools but were tailored to the specific observations, research problem, and analytical objectives of each scientist.
Interviews asked scientists about their tasks, their reasoning behind task choices and behaviors, and their ordering and combining of tasks. Interview notes recorded scientists' responses verbatim — or close to verbatim — but did not similarly capture the questions posed by the interviewer, since he or she often doubled as the note-taker. Interview notes predominantly documented as best the interviewers could the exact language of verbal exchanges, sporadically adding impressionist notes that highlighted a theme or pattern that seemed relevant to the study.
Some scientists participated in additional interviews that involved follow up questions about a scientist's research project and methods. Using qualitative methods for grounded theory analysis adapted to design ends [ 39 ], notes of observations and interviews were read holistically several times and then critically analyzed.
For each case, narrative and procedural scenarios were constructed, capturing the scientist's analysis for his or her research problem. When pairs of scientists worked collaboratively, the observation of both individuals was treated as a single case scenario. For cases of analysis involving multiple observations, one unified scenario was constructed for the problem under study.
- Events | IAU Moon Landing Anniversary Celebration!
- 2 Billion Years Ago, Part 2, Incident at Wizard Island, Oregon Territory.
- Minister Wanted: Santa Fe.
- A Woeful Tale.
- Tension On The String...: Classic Bowhunting Tales And Insights.
These cases typically just filled in details otherwise missing about reasoning, scientists' flow of analysis, and composite stages and tasks. Formal content coding was not applied because the data analysis objective was not so much to thematically or sociolinguistically characterize users and their work or to theorize about higher order scientific cognition per se. Rather the objective was to abstract context-driven patterns of thinking and behaviour that could inform design. Results from overly detailed coding typically do not translate readily into design. Analysis was informed by theories of higher order cognition for complex analysis and visual analytics rather than by cognitive models for low level procedures, which are typically the unit of study in cognitive task or hierarchical task analysis.
Other theories relevant to computer-supported complex tasks also framed analysis but not as pre-ordained conclusions. Relevant socio-technical conceptual frameworks from human-computer interaction, design, and visual cognition afforded looking at the data from multiple perspectives.
Outcomes were related to the analytical gaps in visualization tools identified in [ 26 ]. Items scientists saved or mentioned wanting to save in each case were identified to indicate if scientists placed enough value on outcomes and insights to store them for later personal reference, sharing, or both. Variations across cases were identified and explained. From this analysis, a user model organized around dominant cognitive processes in various stages of analysis was developed. I would like to thank Ben Keller, Fan Meng, Weijian Xuan, and Magesh Jayapandian for their critical reviews of or collaborative contributions to the design implications of findings.
I thank Zach Wright for contributions to collecting and analyzing data and am grateful to the anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments and suggestions. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. J Biomed Discov Collab. Published online Feb Barbara Mirel 1. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Corresponding author. Barbara Mirel: ude. Received Oct 3; Accepted Feb This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Background Current usability studies of bioinformatics tools suggest that tools for exploratory analysis support some tasks related to finding relationships of interest but not the deep causal insights necessary for formulating plausible and credible hypotheses.
Results Findings reveal patterns in scientists' exploratory and explanatory analysis and reveal that tools positively supported a number of well-structured query and analysis tasks. Conclusion As the next great frontier in bioinformatics usability, tool designs for exploratory systems biology analysis need to move beyond the successes already achieved in supporting formulaic query and analysis tasks and now reduce current mismatches with several of scientists' higher order analytical practices.
Background Technological advances have made exploratory analysis in systems biology accessible to large numbers of "everyday" biomedical researchers — i. Review of relevant research Several bioinformatics usability studies overtly or tacitly establish that scientists are not able to gain deep insights from bioinformatics tools intended to support exploratory analysis. Results Overview of common research and analysis practices Fifteen scientists researched distinct problems related to different diseases and putative mechanisms.
Table 1 Stages of exploratory and explanatory analysis shared across scientists. Example: Contextualize significant regulatory relationships in pathways. Story-building narrative reasoning and validation 0 Scientists sought to turn explanations about biological events into new, credible and plausible biological stories. Examples considered to be credible were not available based on scientists' progress.
Open in a separate window. Cognition and analysis in Confirmation During Confirmation, scientists primarily sought to trust the accuracy and completeness of the data and to be assured that the concepts, data, and interactivity offered by the tool fit their analytical intentions and practices as scientific experts and researchers. Table 2 Confirmation stage processes of validation.
Processes of Validation Actions Supported? Compare results to one's own experimental findings for affirmations and contradictions - Sort by gene name - Scroll to genes of interest - Hyperlink to details relevant to experiment Fully Determine accuracy of results by hunting for redundancies or synonyms - Sort by gene name - Scroll to various known genes - Check "Other gene name" field - Scroll to assure no duplication are displayed Fully Determine the accuracy of the data and the data sources - Search for cues or information indicating "data autobiography" or provenance e.
Cognition and analytical practices during Separating the Wheat from Chaff In the next stage, Separating the Wheat from Chaff, scientists classified genes and interactions by reading off data from the displays. They often combined their commonly applied heuristic strategy of looking for functionally similar molecules with other strategies and data, as this scientist reveals: The Description shows this one has the potential to be involved in some of the processes we're interested in.
Ideally, scientists wanted test statistics: What is the p-value of this interaction with MYC? Other surrogates included extracted sentences about interactions mined from full text PubMed Central articles — a feature implemented in later versions of MiMI-Cytoscape during field testing — and scientists' reliance on their own prior knowledge, for example: I see FLO9 interacts with a protein that I don't know. The transition from classification to mental modelling After finding genes and interactions of interest, scientists tacitly began to shift from asking "What? One of the scientists who had found relationships of interest now moved forward, describing this transition as follows: Lists don't make it now.
Specifically, scientists looked to see if the tools provided the following: Is there a physical interaction or regulation between them? One scientist who was studying the efficacy of lithium in bipolar disorder manually checked network displays against his spreadsheet of expression data and commented: If I manually cross-check this graph to some of the genes from my experiment.
Additionally, they sought to validate whether network configurations involving their interesting genes and relationships were by chance alone, as seen in the following think-alouds: Is there even something significant about this network structure that would not occur just by chance? Table 3 Common knowledge representations desired the transition.
Cognition and analytical practices during Beyond Read-offs The three scientists who engaged in Beyond Read-offs did not get very far in this stage. As one of the three scientists participating in Beyond Read-offs commented in think-alouds: These genes are involved in multiple concepts. Some of these overlapped with transition stage needs: Table 4 Support scientists would have liked for explanatory analysis.
Content Edges in networks weighted by biological traits Overlays of protein-protein interactions and disease associations Overlays of protein-protein interactions and relevant pathways Distinctions between proteins and other molecules that might serve as mediators of interactions, e. Discussion Results show many common patterns across cases in scientists' ways of knowing and reasoning but suggest, as well, that creating a match between a tool and a scientist's cognition might be specific to a scientist's domain specialization and analytical objectives.
My field study results show that for the explorations scientists conduct in explanatory systems biology analyses, tool designs and scientists' cognition are mismatched in the following three ways: 1. Mismatch related to validation Confidence in the data, tools, and one's own interpretations of knowledge representations was fundamental to scientists' willingness to engage in and continue engaging in systems biology analysis.
Mismatch related to transitions from classifying to model-based reasoning The importance of helping scientists make the transition from classification to model-based reasoning cannot be overemphasized. Mismatch related to causal mental modelling For causal mental modelling, the conceptual relationships that the scientists sought were fluid, dynamic, and not fully formalizable.
Conclusion In the current bioinformatics research literature, models of scientists' flows of analysis for systems biology explorations are incomplete. Methods The field study aimed to analyze biomedical researchers' higher order cognitive processes for formulating hypotheses during analyses of protein-protein interactions. Participants and their research Twelve biomedical experimentalists from a large university Medical Center were observed and afterwards interviewed as they analyzed protein-protein interactions and related biological concepts to gain novel insights into disease mechanisms.
Table 5 Inquiry and observation sessions per scientist. Table 6 Categories of information. Figure 1. Data collection In scientists' naturalistic settings one to two observers took notes with IRB consent. Data analysis Using qualitative methods for grounded theory analysis adapted to design ends [ 39 ], notes of observations and interviews were read holistically several times and then critically analyzed.
Competing interests The author declares that they have no competing interests. Click here for file 54K, pdf. References Dunbar K. In: The Cognitive Basis of Science. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; Understanding the role of cognition in science; pp. A survey of current work in biomedical text mining. Briefings in Bioinformatics. An insight-based methodology for evaluating bioinformatics visualizations. Springer Berlin; Refining the usability engineering toolbox: lessons learned from a user study on a visualization tool; pp. Developing a protocol for bioinformatics analysis: An integrated information behavior and task analysis approach.
Collaborative development of the Arrowsmith two node search interface designed for laboratory investigators. Journal of Biomedical Discovery and Collaboration. A classification of tasks in bioinformatics. Animated interval scatter-plot views for the exploratory analysis of large-scale microarray time-course data. Information Visualization. IOS Press; Applying task analysis to describe and facilitate bioinformatics tasks; pp. Knowledge discovery in high dimensional data: case studies and a user survey for an information visualization tool. The cognitive basis of model-based reasoning in science; pp.
In: Handbook of Thinking and Reasoning. Holyoak KJ, Morrison R, editor. Scientific thinking and reasoning; pp. Making Sense of Life. Pandora's Hope: Essays on the Reality of Science. Reorienting rhetoric: the dialectic of list and story. Steps to an ecology of mind. Chicago: Chandler Publication; Springer; Toward a comprehensive model of graph comprehension: making the case for spatial cognition; pp.
Extracting explicit and implicit information from complex visualizations; pp. Holyoak K, Sternberg RJ, editor. Mental models in thought; pp. Turning pictures into numbers: extracting and generating information from complex visualizations. Liu, Chenyang Improving programmability and performance for scientific applications. Liu, Hui Modeling of frame structures undergoing large deformations and large rotations.
Liu, Jiabao Numerical optimization of a 6-cylinder diesel engine intake and exhaust manifold. Liu, Shaoqing Quantifying terrestrial ecosystem carbon dynamics with mechanistically-based biogeochemistry models and in situ and remotely sensed data. Liu, Xiaohui Analysis of a next generation energy system based on the integration of transportation subsystem details.
Liu, Xin Water absorption and desorption in concrete. Liu, Xin Analysis of slender structures using mechanics of structure genome and open source codes. Liu, Yangfan Efficient modeling of sound source radiation in free-space and room environments. Liu, Yu Modifications to Johanson's roll compaction model for improved relative density predictions. Liu, Yucheng Modeling of human perception for near-threshold local distortion in natural images.
Liu, Yue Structural studies on cell entry of respiratory enteroviruses. Liu, Yuhang Measuring the effect of cold storage, captive supply, and concentration on the marketing margin in the U. Liu, Yun Three dimensional unsteady flow and active morphing effect in flapping wings. Li, Yiran The effect of static and dynamic aging on fatigue behavior of Sn3. Li, Yue Hua qian zhao zui shou looking for trouble at own expense - a study of tourist mis behaviors.
Li, Zhang Optimal monitoring and mitigation of systemic risk in lending networks. Llanos Lucas, Fernando The role of experience in processing foreign-accented speech. Lockman, Jennifer Danielle College students' suicidal ideation: Testing the predictions of the existential - constructivist theory of suicide.
Lopez Otero, Julio Cesar Bilingualism effects at the syntax-semantic interface: Evidence from the Spanish present tense. Lopez Perez, Nelyan Degradation of high performance polymeric fibers: Effects of sonication, humidity and temperature on poly p-phenylene terephthalamide fibers. Lotz, David Allen Energy dashboard for real-time evaluation of a heat pump assisted solar thermal system. Lou, Fangyuan A study on flow development in an APU-style inlet and its effect on centrifugal compressor performance. Love, Heather A Suicidal ideation following the termination of romantic relationships with consideration of family-of-origin functioning and self-efficacy.
Luan, Chi-Cheng Feelings of doing good for myself or others: Discussing effects of self-conscious emotions on sustainable consumption. Lucas, Jason M Connecting models of configuration spaces: From double loops to strings. Lu, Cheng Content-based image analysis with applications to the multifunction printer imaging pipeline and image databases.
Lui, Pan Priscilla Disentangling universal and cultural-specific risks to mental health among Asian Americans: A multi-site longitudinal investigation. Regulation in Infant Formula Safety. Luo, Qianwen The cloud-radiative forcing of the U. Luo, Zhe Understanding in-plane thermal transport in crystalline semiconducting thin films. Luttermoser, Timothy J Nestmate recognition in odorous house ants Tapinoma sessile : Effects of social plasticity, urbanization, and laboratory maintenance. Lu, Xueting Improving fuel economy during high load diesel engine system operation through valve train flexibility.
Lyle, LaDawn Tiffany A molecular analysis of blood-tumor barrier permeability in three experimental models of brain metastasis from breast cancer. Lyu, Hao Lyu Fight deck human-automation mode confusion detection using a generalized fuzzy hidden Markov model.
Macke, Gabriel A Evaluation of a cool-season grass-white clover mixture for low-nitrogen input lawns. Maesschalck, Cis Guy M. De Design, analysis, optimization and control of rotor tip flows. Mahdavi, Arash A system-of-systems approach to ex-ante analysis of profit potential of a project portfolio.
Maier Acosta, Ana Margarita A multiculturalist and sociotransformative approach to entrepreneurship education in Honduras. Ma, Jing Improving online food safety communication: The role of media. Mallett, Lauren B Rootwire. Manish, Raja Profile fitting in crowded astronomical images. Mankani, Bharat R Advances in Raman hyperspectral compressive detection instrumentation for fast label free classification, quantitation and imaging.
Man, Mengren Nanophotonics for dark materials, filters, and optical magnetism. Marathe, Monica Implementation of reliability aware scheduling in an open source scheduling system. Marbouti, Farshid A standards-based grading model to predict students' success in a first-year engineering course. Marcum, Christopher Louis Fundamental studies of collision-activated dissociation CAD of deprotonated model compounds relevant to lignin degradation products.
Mares, Jesus O. Marquet, Bryan David Design of an asymmetric reluctance machine for a generator application. Marquez Alcala, German A The labor market consequences of endogenous low-skill migration with a market-based immigration policy. Martin, Audrey E Biochemical studies on mycobacterial proteins involved in the transport of fatty acids. Marziale, Matthew D Thermal neutron analysis for improvised explosive device detection. Masters, Christine L Encounters beyond the interface: Data structures, material feminisms, and composition.
Matin, Saima A Economic viability of flexible biogas pumps in Bangladesh. Mayar, Khalilullah Modernizing the current Afghan engineering education system: Challenges and opportunities. Mayes, Amanda Sue Struggling students become successful art mentors: A mixed methods multi-case study. Ma, Yue Amplifying the connection between empty nest parents and their children through ambient information design. Mazzurco, Andrea Methods to facilitate community participation in humanitarian engineering projects: Laying the foundation for a learning platform.
McDermott, Keith A A mixed methods study: Evaluating the relationship of project manager competencies and it project management methodologies. McKenna, Lindsay N Vocalizations of sea turtle hatchlings and embryos. McMasters, James F Development and characterization of targeted poly NIPAm nanoparticles for delivery of anti-inflammatory peptides in peripheral artery disease and osteoarthritis. McMillan, John Ernest Annual forage cropping-systems for midwestern ruminant livestock production. Mei, Henry Coupled resonator based wireless power transfer for bioelectronics.
Mejia, Jessica Animals and the value of life. Mendoza Garcia, John A A phenomenographic study of the ability to address complex socio-technical systems via variation theory. Merrill, Daniel Alexander Investigation of cellular microenvironments and heterogeneity with biodynamic imaging.click here
Tension on the String Classic Bowhunting Tales and Insights by Mark R. Baker
Methel, Cam-Tu Jeanne An experimental comparison of diffuser designs in a centrifugal compressor. Miao, Jinmin Studies in novel transition-metal-catalyzed oxidative coupling reactions. Michuda, Nicolas J Mining big data to create a tool for empirical observation of continuous safety improvement in a construction company - A progressive case study in the lean environment. Midi, Daniele Security techniques for sensor systems and the Internet of Things. Miller, Brittney Rachele Kernels of adjoints of composition operators on Hilbert spaces of analytic functions.
Miller, Elyse A Role of otolith organs in geometric cue processing. Miller, Galina V Using information technology to model hand-washing behavior and to improve policies impacting elementary school absenteeism due to influenza. Miller, Jacob K The thermomechanical response of composite energetic materials under high- and low-frequency mechanical excitations.
Miller, Lauren Elizabeth The acquisition of bare nominals by three populations of Spanish-English bilingual adults. Milutinovic, Goran Veljko New screening method for overweight vehicles. Miner, Courtney L Adolescent resilience: Examining the influence of sibling position following a parental separation. Misata, Kelley K Gap analysis identifying the current state of information security within organizations working with victims of violence. Mischler, Renee A The influence of diet and oral iron supplementation on iron status after gastric bypass surgery.
Mishra, Aura Ankita Impact of peer relationship and exposure to violence on Posttraumatic Stress for children at risk for maltreatment. Mitra, Subrata What broke where for distributed and parallel applications — a whodunit story. Mitsein, Rebekah K Africa is always bringing forth something new: African worlds and worldviews in British Enlightenment literature, Mobasher Moghaddam, Sina Analytical and experimental investigation of microstructural alterations in bearing steel in rolling contact fatigue.
Moghaddam, Mohsen Best matching processes in distributed systems. Moghe, Prajakta S Zigbee based wireless adjustable speed drive system. Mohamed, Mohamed Fathy Kamel Targeting multi-drug resistant pathogens with novel antimicrobial peptides. Mohammadi, Ahmad Shah Managing bacterial wilt, caused by Erwinia tracheiphila, on muskmelon with early control of striped cucumber beetle Acalymma vittatum F , and through varietal selection.
Mohan, Ranjini Neural activity reveals effects of aging on inhibitory processes during word retrieval. Moloney, Colleen A simulation of flow and water quality from tile drains at the watershed and field scale. Montoya Rodriguez, Miguel A Quantifying asphalt emulsion-based chip seal curing times using electrical resistance measurements. Moomen, Milhan Deterioration modeling of highway bridge components using deterministic and stochastic methods. Moore, John A Deep collective inference. Moran Yanez, Luis M Bridge maintenance to enhance corrosion resistance and performance of steel girder bridges.
Morgan, Carissa Jae Investigating U. Morton, Patricia M The things they carried: The biological residue of childhood misfortune. Morusu, Siripriya Automated methods to detect and quantify histological features in liver biopsy images to aid in the diagnosis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Moser, Meghan E Residual effects of nitrogen fertilization on soil nitrogen pools and corn growth. Moser, Sydney E Influence of dietary polyphenols on carbohydrate intestinal digestion and absorption. Mukundan, Vivek Rees algebras and iterated Jacobian duals.
Muller, Alexandra A Manufacturer perspectives on content transparency and material health in the US building products industry. Mulvenna, Ryan A Size and chemistry selective membranes from block polymer templates. Mundayaliyath Mundayadan, Rohit Can wearable devices reduce burnout by making people aware of stress? Munyua, Philip Mutuma Collaboration in scientific digital ecosystems: A socio-technical network analysis. Muralidharan, Charanya Elucidating the mechanisms or interactions involved in differing hair color follicles. Muralidharan, Pooja Characterization of ethanol-induced effects on zebrafish retinal development: Mechanistic perspective and therapeutic strategies.
Murchison, Nicole M Understanding the mechanism for response selection in compatibility tasks: Referential coding contrasted with biological properties of the hands. Murphy, Jesse R Mechanistic characterization of acetic acid resistance enzymes of Acetobacer aceti. Mutascio, Holly E Modeling relative habitat suitability and movement behavior of invasive Burmese pythons in southern Florida. Nall, Stacy O Decentering the writing program archive: How composition instructors save and share their teaching materials. Nam, Woongsik Laser direct written silicon nanowires for electronic and sensing applications.
Natt, Caitlin "Only weirdos give birth at home" and other young adult perceptions of midwives and home birth: Implications for communication campaigns promoting midwifery. Navaratne, Uditha S Mmulti agent system approach to solve distributed energy resource allocation problem to increase the stability and reliability of the distribution system. Navarro Patino, Miguel Andres Energy efficiency in data collection wireless sensor networks. Nayyar, Soumya Implementation and analysis of reverse breathing, rebreathing and cylinder deactivation for aftertreatment thermal management and overall efficiency benefit on diesel engines.
Ndukaife, Theodore Aganachi Reduction of energy consumption in low rise residential space conditioning by retrofitting with evaporative condenser. Ness, Robert D. Newman, Justin A At the intersection of X-ray diffraction and nonlinear optics. Ng, Ka Ho Dopamine d1 receptor activity in the basolateral amygdala is important for mediating fear, reward and safety discrimination learning. Ngo, Phuong D Intelligent control of a class of nonlinear systems.
Nguyen, Elizabeth Bich Hang Impact of microwave-assisted heating and enzymatic treatment on functional and antioxidant properties of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss by-product hydrolysates. Ng, Vincent L The development and validation of a measure of virtues. Nie, Xin Relationships between dietary fiber structural features and growth and utilization patterns of human gut bacteria.
Nie, Yizhou Cyclic tensile response of a polyurethane material. Niu, Li Why are some aggressive adolescents popular: Subgroups of Chinese aggressive youth. Nyberg, Leila Assessing the impact of emerging contaminants on anaerobic microbial communities. Nyre, Megan Marie Developing agent-based simulation models of task performance of cognitively diverse teams. O'Brien-Tomory, Annette Jean A study on the benefits for nontraditional commuter students of supplemental screencasts in a traditional chemistry lecture setting.
Ochoa, Manuel Laser-processed parchment paper for fabrication of chronic wound dressings with selective oxygenation. Odeh, Faisal Yousef Optimum core design studies for long-life small modular boiling water reactors. Oduncu, Muhammed Ramazan Development of a novel polymer-garnet solid state composite electrolyte incorporating Li-La-Zr-Bi-O and polyethylene oxide.
Okada, Aya Effects of a timed dictation activity in the introductory course in Japanese focusing on the accuracy and fluency of writing Katakana. Olberg, Madeline W Manipulating air and root-zone temperature for energy-efficient floriculture crop production. Oliver, A. Brandon Development of inverse methods for reconstruction of flight environments on ablators. Olsen, Karen Mechanism and conformational dynamics of the yeast isoprenylcysteine carboxyl methyltransferase, Ste14p. O'Neill, Lucas E Analysis of body force effects on flow boiling and condensation with finite inlet quality.
Opondo, Noah F Fabrication and characterization of active nanostructures. Oren, Can Seismic body-wave interferometry using noise autocorrelations for crustal structure and a tutorial on 3D seismic processing and imaging using Madagascar. Orpe, Mrudula Uday Advanced hydraulic systems for next generation of skid steer loaders. Orstad, Stephanie L Examining the moderating role of demographic factors and depressive symptoms in direct and indirect associations between the objective and perceived neighborhood environment and physical activity in three U.
Osborn, Amie N Age demographics and farm real estate values. Ou, Ge Robust hybrid simulation with improved fidelity: Theory, methodology, and implementation. Owen, Graham Magnetic resonance elastography: A comparison between pulse sequences across field strengths. Owens, Harold Provisioning end-to-end quality of service for real-time interactive video over software-defined networking. Pacheco Chiguano, Franklin E A methodology for cooperation between electric utilities and consumers for microgrid utilization based on a systems engineering approach.
Padaruth, Sookhenlall Principals' perceptions and experiences of physical education teacher evaluation: A case study. Paik, Kyong-Yup Experimental investigation of hot-jet ignition of methane-hydrogen mixtures in a constant-volume combustor. Pajouhi, Zoha Exploring Spin-transfer-torque devices and memristors for logic and memory applications. Palsdottir, Johanna B Phase field damage simulations of debonding between matrix and spherical inclusions. Pan, Chao Group transformation and identification with kernel methods and big data mixed logistic regression.
Panuganti, Chaitanya Control-oriented modeling, validation, and analysis of a natural gas engine architecture. Park, Chong Hyun Parametric approaches to fractional programs: Analytical and empirical study. Parker, Mallory A The dark side of reactive attitudes: From persons to compatibilism. Park, Hyungju Andy Representation and control of coordinated-motion tasks for human-robot systems. Pei, Kexin Bridging statistical learning and formal reasoning for cyber attack detection. Peiris, Thelge Manjula Generalized techniques for using system execution traces to support software performance analysis.
Peng, Shane X Fabrication and characterization of cellulose nanocrystal enhanced sustainable polymer nanocomposites through surface chemistry and processing. Penumatcha, Ashish Verma Towards building a prototype spin-logic device. Perkins, Jackelyn Facebook and user experience: Evaluating brand equity of Purdue University residences. Perley, Jeffrey P Advancing multiple model-based control of complex biological systems: Applications in T cell biology. Peters, Jeffrey C Electric power and the global economy: Advances in database construction and sector representation.
Peterson, Brittany F Investigating physiological collaborations between a lower termite and its symbionts. Phillips, Canek Moises Luna Race, class and gender in engineering education: A quantitative investigation of first year enrollment. Pirzadeh, Saba Violence, militarism and the environment in contemporary South Asian literature. Plotkowski, Alexander J Modeling fluid interactions with the rigid mush in alloy solidification.
Plouviez, Michael J Factors influencing feedback receptivity. Pochini, Katherine M The interactive effects of pesticide exposure and infectious disease on amphibian hosts. Porter, Caitlin M Employee networks and positions differentially predict employee turnover directly and through job satisfaction and job performance. Powell, Michael S In-situ particle sizing of agglomerates in aluminized solid composite propellants using digital inline holography DIH. Prabhu Verleker, Akshay N Optical dosimetry tools and Monte Carlo based methods for applications in image guided optical therapy in the brain.
Prada, Daniele A hybridizable discontinuous Galerkin method for nonlinear porous media viscoelasticity with applications in ophthalmology. Price, James T Characterization of the juvenile green turtle Chelonia mydas microbiome associated with the ontogenic shift from pelagic habitats to inshore resident areas. Pritchett, Robert E Numerical methods for low-thrust trajectory optimization. Provost, Netty A phenomenological inquiry into sacred time in Hinduism.
Quackenbush, Robert William Edward An assessment of the competitive ability of oak species in the central hardwood region using both pre-harvest treatment data and stem analysis techniques. Quinby, Brandon Matthew Latitudinal variation of life history strategies in the burying beetle, Nicrophorus orbicollis. Qu, Simeng Functional regression models in the frame work of reproducing kernel Hilbert space. Radford, Shari Melissa Structure-function analysis of the dopamine transporter in the presence of synthetic cathinones and amphetamines.
Rahman, Mahmudur Graphlet based network analysis. Rajkhowa, Bhargav R Establishing and improving control stratregies that sustain plant health in a botanical biofilter. Ramachandra, Manasa Catalytic conversion of chlorite to chlorine dioxide by non-heme complexes. Ramachandran, Raghav Reaction tuning of selectively deposited nano-thermite inks for thrust and heat deposition.
Ramchandran, Gautham Modeling the lubricating interfaces of ultra-high pressure radial piston machines. Rao, Arjun Harsha A new approach to modeling aviation accidents. Raptis, Konstantinos The clash between two worlds in human action recognition: Supervised feature training vs recurrent ConvNet.
- Far Across The Sea (Sequel to Ours, Yours and Mines Book 2).
- How to Use This Resource.
- Domestic Investigations and Operations Guide;
- Chasing Rocky!
- Charles Goldie - New Zealand Paintings - Maori Tribe?
Rathore, Zenith A framework for organizational performance assessment in the construction industry. Rau, Matthew J Turbulent liquid-vapor flow interactions and heat transfer in confined jet impingement boiling. Ravesi, Michael J Timber harvest and prescribed fire as tools for Massasauga conservation. Ravi, Jayakumaran Spatial reconstruction of biological trees from point clouds.
Rayarikar, Anuja S Using big data analytics for effective six sigma project selection. Redemann, Morgan Alyse Evaluation of thermal process lethality in meat for non-pathogenic Escherichia coli as a surrogate for Salmonella. Redington, Luke Methodology on trial: The rhetorical function of Toulminian warrants in expert testimony. Reichard, Shayne Edward The search for dark matter in xenon: Innovative calibration strategies and novel search channels. Reichert, Emily C Beginning to explore stigma prevention: An experimental analysis of meritocratic worldviews and social distancing.
Ren, Jia Mass spectrometry analysis of carbohydrate and cholesteryl ester. Renner, Max M Superheroes and social action: Reproduction, recurrence, and recognition in the superhero genre. Ren, Yue Development of direct ionization sampling methods for point-of-care mass spectrometry analysis.
Restrepo Perez, Vanessa Multiscale strategy for modelling the mechanical performance of hook and loop fasteners based on a detachment process zone model. Riciputi, Shaina Cole Relationship quality, engagement, hope, self-worth, and health-risk behaviors in a physical activity-based positive youth development program. Riedle, Matthew R Identifying trends among phishing attacks. Riggs, Brandon S A multi-level, cross-level examination of leader and team member outcomes of leader-leader exchange differentiation. Rigg, Stefanie Alterations to redox chemistry of A adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial cells upon exposure to e-cigarette vapors.
Rigney, Jeffrey M Effects of temperature distribution on boundary layer stability for a circular cone at Mach Rinas, Aimee Lynn Advancing the applicability of fast photochemical oxidation of proteins to complex systems. Ringelberg, Josiah M Mergers and acquisitions in food and agribusiness: Returns, drivers, and long run performance. Ritelli, Guido Francesco Active oscillation reduction in hydraulic load handling machines with energy implications. Rivera Alvarado, Daniela Towards a software development methodology for projects in higher education institutions.
Robinson-Junker, Amanda L The impact of sleep disruption on mouse physiology, behavior, and welfare. Robison, Jeremy Patrick Transportation and power solutions for Africa: The assessment and optimization of the Purdue utility platform. Rocha, Jonathan Secondary atomization of inelastic non-newtonian liquid drops in the bag and multimode regimes. Roe, Kirsten E Tolerance as a novel mechanism of Hessian fly control on wheat.
Ronald, Kelly L The role of individual variation in auditory and visual processing: Implications for mate choice. Rorick, Joseph D Cereal rye cover crop effects on soil physical and chemical properties in southeastern Indiana. Ross, Monique S A unicorn's tale: Examining the experiences of Black women in engineering industry. Roth, Katie E Automating stem learning by engaging in artful-inspired play.
Ruemler, Shawn P Analyzing the opinion of industry professionals on model-based definition datasets to determine the most efficient method. Rupp, Kortney Kaye Polymerizable lipids for controlled functionalization of layered materials. Ryan, Valerie E Recombinant Listeria adhesion protein expressing probiotics protect against Listeria monocytogenes infection in animal models.
Rybarczyk, Ryan Thomas Managing trust and reliability for indoor tracking systems. Rynearson, Anastasia M From mechanic to designer: Evolving perceptions of elementary students over three years of engineering instruction. Sadasivam, Sridhar Atomistic and mesoscopic simulations of heat transfer across heterogeneous material interfaces. Saef, Rachel M Trust as a regulated response to cultural diversity at work: The moderating role of openness to experience. Saini, Amit K Emission control in rotary kiln limestone calcination using Petri net models.
Salazar, Ramon Investigation of transport, capacitance, and high-accuracy modeling aspects in low-dimensional devices for tunneling applications. Salem, Salma Innovative novel immunotherapies for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme. Saltaformaggio, Brendan D Convicted by memory: Automatically recovering spatial-temporal evidence from memory images. Sanchez, Bridget Mindfulness-based group training with Latino immigrant community. Sanchez Cossio, William Fernando Exploratory study of students' representational fluency and competence of electric circuits. Sanchez, Fernando Technical communication in place-making professions: Exploring the network pictures of urban designers.
Sandupatla, Hareesh Using reinforcement learning to learn relevance ranking of search queries. Sarangi, Suchismita Characterization of pool boiling heat transfer from porous-coating-enhanced surfaces. Sarbada, Shashank Ultra short pulse laser surface modification. Satta, Mark R A defense of the ambiguity theory of 'knows'.
Savage, Melissa N Comparing direct and technology-based praise statements to increase physical activity for students with autism spectrum disorder. Saxena, Arush Usability of real time data for cold chain monitoring systems. Sayin, Ridade Mechanistic studies of twin screw granulation. Scalco de Vasconcelos, Luize High-throughput mechanical characterization methods for composite electrodes and in-situ analysis of Li-ion batteries.
Schartz, Nicole Denise A role for the classical complement pathway in hippocampal dendritic injury and hippocampal dependent memory deficits in a model of acquired epilepsy. Scherer, Andrea K High school students' motivations and views of agriculture and agricultural careers upon completion of a pre-college program. Schmitt, Paul D Coupling qualitative and quantitative analyses of pharmaceutical materials enabled by second harmonic generation microscopy.
Schwanz, Derek K. W Solution based processing of garnet type oxides for optimized lithium-ion transport. Sedberry, Tiffany M Woman, teacher, mother, scholar: Using narrative inquiry and intimate insider research to explore women's navigation of multiple identities in graduate school. Sego, Timothy James Finite element analysis of and multiscale skeletal tissue mechanics concerning a single dental implant site.
Segura, Jason Michael Investigating the effects of pH on alphaviral E3-E2 glycoprotein association, organization, and cellular tropism. Selmane, Tesnime Nonword repetition and phonological awareness skills in preschoolers with and without speech sound disorders. Seo, Yeongkyo Spin-transfer-torque STT devices for on-chip memory and their applications to low-standby power systems. Shah, Chandni D South Asian women's sexual relationship power: Examining the role of sexism, cultural values conflict, discrimination, and social support.
Shah, Ishita Viren Comparison of stakeholder management and change management factors in managing successful versus unsuccessful it projects. Shanbhag, Sunanda Vivek A faster version of Louvain method for community detection for efficient modeling and analytics of cyber systems. Shao, Gang Quantification of central hardwood forest structure and aboveground biomass with low-density airborne lidar data. Shashaani, Sara Adaptive sampling trust-region methods for derivative-based and derivative-free simulation optimization problems.
Shen, Dan Hybrid wind-solar-storage energy harvesting systems. Shen, Yanfei Design, compact modeling and characterization of nanoscale devices. Shi, Hu Investigation of methods for reducing aflatoxin contamination in distillers grains. Shin, Sang Mi Semantic knowledge-based language education device for children with autism spectrum disorder or other developmental disabilities. Shively, Kurt Spencer Implementation of the continuous space language model on a heterogeneous mobile processor.
Shollar, Zachary Frank Scaling effects of a graphene field effect transistor for radiation detection. Short, Cody R Flow-informed strategies for trajectory design and analysis. Shulkin, Ilya Early bearing fault analysis using high frequency enveloping techniques. Shvidko, Elena Relationship-building through embodied feedback: Teacher-student alignment in writing conferences. Sick, Justin T Ultrasound and photoacoustic methods for anatomic and functional imaging in image guided radiation therapy.
Sills, Ellery Emerging genres, dangerous classifications: The kairos of digital composing policy. Sims, Bryan Thomas Plutonium disposition by gas dynamic trap. Sims, Rebekah Elizabeth To see in a mirror dimly: An ecology of ritual transmission. Singh, Shubham Applications of the homotopy analysis method to optimal control problems. Singla, Ankush Hardware accelerated authentication system for dynamic time-critical networks.
Smith, Ian Tad Targeted products from fast-hydropyrolysis and hydrodeoxygenation of biomass. Smith, Nicholas G Terrestrial vegetation in the Earth system. Smith, Ryan R Effects of the urban matrix on avian assemblages in forest fragments. Smith, Stephen I Navigating stress in public education: A personal reflection and narrative study of my closest relationships in teaching.
Snitko, Jessica R Millennial matchmaker or just a game? The uses and gratifications of Tinder. Snyder, Julia L Investigations on the vampire moth genus Calyptra Ochsenheimer, incorporating taxonomy, life history, and bioinformatics Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Calpinae. Sohn, Jayoung Demand uncertainty and investment in the restaurant industry. Sommer, Carl Visual detail and its effects on character attachment in video games.
Sommer, Drew E Constitutive modeling of the rheological behavior of platelet suspensions. Song, Cheng Seismic assessment of vulnerable reinforced concrete structures. Song, Tao A sharp interface isogeometric strategy for moving boundary problems. Song, Yuankun Using ubiquitous data to improve smartwatches' context awareness.
Song, Yunfan E-commerce mental models of upper middle class Chinese female consumers in Beijing. Song, Zhuonan Measuring mashup similarity in open data innovation contests. Southwell, Kenona H The role of workplace supervisor support in caregivers' marital relationships. Soverns, Christopher S Consonant discrimination in the inferior colliculus of young and aged rats. Sparks, Rachel E Mapping and analyzing energy use and efficiency in a modified hydroponic shipping container.
Wats in Indiana. Specht, Aaron James X-ray fluorescence for quantification of lead and strontium in vivo. Spells, Angelitta M Risks and health consequences of forgoing, delaying, or having trouble accessing needed health care among Medicare beneficiaries. Spence, Tyler An evaluation of noise reduction strategies at large commercial airports in the United States: A policy analysis and framework classification. Srinivasan, Mithun Investigation of thin film thermal transport using micro-Raman thermometry and tip enhanced Raman spectroscopy. Stadig, Margaret Hutton Lower food web dynamics in lakes Michigan and Huron: Spatial and temporal responses to recent oligotrophication.
Stafford, Joshua J The effect of trait death anxiety on job involvement, organizational citizenship behavior, and turnover intentions in low mortality cue jobs. Stanish, Natalie A Family structures as predictors of attachment security: The relationship between parental attachment security and romantic attachment security in stepfamilies and intact families. Stavitzke, Kenneth G Warhol's transgender superstars: A materialist examination of the body in cinematic text. Steiner, Colton D Design, fabrication, and characterization of acoustic metamaterials with embedded resonators.
John, Jason R A small-scale testbed for large-scale reliable computing. Strange, Nathan J Analytical methods for gravity-assist tour design. Strantz, Adam W Wayfinding localized research practices through mobile technology. Stratton, James A An analysis of the current strength of the academic relationship with the aerospace industry.
Strauss, Kevin Metal-promoted self-assembly of collagen mimetic peptides into biofunctional scaffolds for stem cell delivery with the aim of tissue regeneration. Sturgess, Jessica N Saying the world anew: A philosophical understanding of communication as testimony. Sturtevant, Hannah G Design, implementation, and evaluation of a hybrid scale-up model for general chemistry courses. Stutzman, Sarah U. Subramanian, Subashini Modeling the impact of land surface feedbacks on post landfall tropical cyclones. Sudhakaran, Saurabh Potential energy savings and benefits to thermal comfort from the effective use of window blinds.
Su, Dong Differentially private data publishing for data analysis. Suelzer, Joseph S Double optical feedback and PT-symmetry breaking induced nonlinear dynamics in semiconductor lasers. Suksangpanya, Nobphadon Fracture analysis in biomimetic Bouligand architectures. Sullivan, Brendan T Characterization of Cu-rich aggregates in neurogenic niches of the rodent brain by X-ray fluorescence microscopy.
Sun, Bo Nanoparticle depot for intraperitoneal chemotherapy of ovarian cancer. Sundaram, Mekala The role of seed attributes in eastern gray squirrel foraging. Sundarrajan, Anusha Hydration and vocal loading on voice measures. Sun, Deke Jet energy loss in quark-gluon plasma. Sung, Hyun Axonal transport and life cycle of mitochondria in Parkinson's disease model. Sun, Hao Dynamic holography in semiconductors and biomedical optics. Sun, Shanxia Behavioral responses and policy evaluation: Revisiting water and fuel policies.
- O Au No Keia:Voices From Hawaiis Mahu and Transgender Communities.
- Once-Told Tales: An Essay in Literary Aesthetics (New Directions in Aesthetics)!
- Account Options.
Suryanarayana, Harish Design paradigm for power electronics based DC distribution systems. Su, Yuan Direct drug screening and lipid profiling using ambient mass spectrometry. Su, Yu-Chi Design of elastic metamaterials. Svaldi, Diana Otero Characterizing the effects of repetitive head trauma in female soccer athletes for prevention of mild traumatic brain injury. Swaminathan, Shrikant Modeling picking on pharmaceutical tablets. Swanson, LaTasha R The graphic side of fear: The effects of anti-tobacco graphic threat appeals.
Swaroop, Kshitiz Automatic differentiation using vectorized hyper dual numbers. Sweeney, Cameron J Characterization of a hypersonic quiet wind tunnel nozzle. Swift, S. Hales Implementing and testing a panel-based method for modeling acoustic scattering from CFD input. Swisher, Melissa Jane Reflexivity: A first demonstration. Symithe, Steeve J Present day plate boundary deformation in the Caribbean and crustal deformation on southern Haiti. Szwed, Kathryn L Self-regulation to practice: Incorporating the strategy to an early childhood special education setting.
Tabares Tamayo, Juan D The influence of alkalinity of portland cement on the absorption characteristics of superabsorbent polymers SAP for use in internally cured concrete. Tang, Chuohao Clustered-dot periodic halftone screen design and ICC profile color table compression. Tang, Mingjie Efficient processing of similarity queries with applications.
Tan, Jing Estimating the water quality condition of river and lake water in the Midwestern United States from its spectral characteristics. Tanu, Tanu High sensitivity nanotechnology gas sensing device. Tanvir, Saad Physical properties, evaporation and combustion characteristics of nanofluid-type fuels. Tan, Yaohua Tight binding parameterization from ab-initio calculations and its applications.
Tan, Yu-Yang Kenneth Seeking interdependence: Commitment desirability and the initiation and maintenance of close relationships. Tao, Fei Effect of temperature on deep lined circular tunnels in isotropic and transversely anisotropic elastic ground. Taw, Matthew R Linking nanoscale mechanical behavior to bulk physical properties and phenomena of energetic materials.
Taylor, Alexander Harrison Test cell set-up to enable drive-cycle testing of a variable valve actuation enabled camless diesel engine. Taylor, Ashley D Temporal trends and influence of habitat on freshwater mussel communities within Cedar Creek, Indiana. Terheide, Donald B Utilizing the Signaling Theory in order to enhance minority recruitment in law enforcement. Tezeller Arik, Beril An autoethnographic study of identity and literacy development in a second language: A rendition of an international graduate student's travails.
Thackston, Kyle A Optimization of wireless power networks for biomedical applications. Thamann, Aubrey Crossroads: An interdisciplinary study of funeral directors in Indiana. Thangamani, Shankar Repurposing non-antimicrobial drugs to treat multi-drug resistant bacterial and fungal infections. Thneibat, Mujahed M Policy design tool for managing indoor residential water demand in water-scarce regions. Tholeti, Siva Sashank Particle modeling of non-equilibrium field emission driven RF microplasmas. Thomas, Brianna S. Dillon Localization and delocalization in two-dimensional quantum percolation.
Thomas, D'Shawn G Assessing the performance of a soy methyl ester -polystyrene topical treatment to extend the service life of concrete structures. Thomas, Michael Evan The impact of practicing in a rural setting on ethical decision-making for clinically practicing mental health service providers. Thomas, Suneeta The case of the "innocuous" middle-class migrant employee: English language use and attitudes in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Thompson, Matthew An inside-out approach to nuclear mechanics: Genetic engineering of an in vitro laminopathy model.
Tian, Yu Rutting evaluation of full-depth flexible pavement using accelerated pavement testing. Tometich, Danielle B Symptom severity and importance in metastatic breast cancer patients: an examination of cognitive complaints and related symptoms. Toner, Nathan L Data driven low-bandwidth intelligent control of a jet engine combustor. Tong, Xiaosu Divide and recombined for large complex data: Nonparametric-regression modelling of spatial and seasonal-temporal time series. Torres Bravo, Ariana P Three essays analyzing the role of social capital on individual and firm decision making.
Torres Martinez, Lorena Evolutionary potential of a dispersal-restricted species in response to climate change. Totty, Evan S Essays in labor economics and panel data analysis. Touza, Kaitlin Kyna Intensive treatment near the end of life in advanced cancer patients.
Traverso, Luis M Optical sub-diffraction limited focusing for confined heating and lithography. Trembath, Felicia E Evaluating the prevalence and effectiveness of breed-specific legislation. TruongVo, ThucNhi Application of pulse width modulation to a western blotting device. Tuholski, Andrew D Understanding the formation of American mental health policy preferences, Tuncil, Yunus Emre Complex glycan utilization preferences of human gut bacteria.
Tung, Chun-Yu Immune modulating functions by soypeptide lunasin in cancer immunotherapy. Undupitiya Gamage, Dimuthu QoS and trust prediction framework for composed distributed systems. Upadhyay, Harshal Adaptive gravity-balancing arm systems. Uzunoglu, Aytekin Nanoparticle-based electrochemical sensors for the detection of lactate and hydrogen peroxide. Vaidya, Abhishek B Unsupervised learning framework for large-scale flight data analysis of cockpit human machine interaction issues. Valone, Marianne C Effect of humidity on the creep response of cellulose nanocrystals films.
VanArsdall, Joshua Edward Exploring animacy as a mnemonic dimension. Corn Belt, Vasudevan, Varun A Best rank-1 approximations without orthogonal invariance for the 1-norm. Vaughn, Brian J Novel gain enhancement technique for microstrip patch antennas based on multi-pronged feed network synthesis. Vaught, James A Cryptographic applications of permutation polynomials.
Vaziri, Baback Markov-based ranking methods. Velasquez Moreno, Carmen G Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Salmonella isolated from poultry farms. Venkataramani, Swagath Approximate computing: An integrated cross-layer framework. Verma, Devendra Interfacial mechanical strength characterization in multilayered materials via nanoscale impact and nano mechanical Raman spectroscopy experiments.
Vesely, Laurent W After the honeymoon: The Obama effect on political attitudes and participation. Vian, Wei D On the grain refinement of aluminum alloys. Vieira, Camilo Students' explanations in complex learning of disciplinary programming. Vielma Delano, Sofia Katherina An economic assessment of household unwanted medicine disposal programs. Villegas Pico, Hugo Nestor Advances to the dynamic analysis of power converter-based systems under uncertainty: A reachability approach. Vinogradova, Zoia Motivational orientations of American and Russian learners of French as a foreign language.
Vize, Colin Edward Untangling the relationship between narcissistic traits and behavioral aggression using a FFM framework. Vora, Ashish P Modeling the impact of battery degradation within lifecycle cost based design optimization of heavy-duty hybrid electric vehicles. Wahab, Abdul MD. Walala, Micah A cross-sectional and mixed-method assessment of safety culture and safety climate at a regional airline.
Walker, William S. Wallace, Carlington W Simulation of conservation practice effects on water quality under current and future climate scenarios. Wallach, Kit Simple domestics. Wallin, Jonathan Scott An ecology of place in composition studies. Walsh, Patrick S Single-conformation spectroscopy of hydrogen bonding networks: Solvation, synthetic foldamers, and neurodegenerative diseases. Walters, Wendell William Unraveling the fingerprints of NOx using stable isotopes: Implications for NOx source partitioning and oxidation chemistry. Wang, Anran User acceptance barriers for warehouse environment mobile wireless technology.
Wang, Dan The application of the Hadoop software framework in Bioinformatics programs. Wang, Erzhuo Interaction effect of manager's implicit person theory and perceived performance management purpose on their commitment to performance management. Wang, Fa The mechanism of vitamin D mediated protection from experimental colitis.
Wang, Guanyi Experimental study on interfacial area transport in downward two-phase flow. Wang, Jiachen Multigraph visualization for feature classification of brain network data. Wang, Jianyu Three problems in image analysis and rendering: Local defect detection, semantically-based 2. Wang, Jiaqi A usability assessment for a career planning educational video game.
Wang, Pei-Hsun On-chip microresonator frequency combs: Generation dynamics, power transfer, and time-domain characterization. Wang, Qiaoying Enhancing the campus experience: Helping international students to adapt to North American campus life. Wang, Su-Ju Ultracold quantum scattering in the presence of synthetic spin-orbit coupling. Wang, Xiao Fast voxel line update for time-space image reconstruction.
Wang, Xiaowo Multi-scale computational framework for simulation of cellular solids. Wang, Yan Multiscale simulations of thermal transport in graphene-based materials and across metal-semiconductor interfaces. Wang, Yanchu Tail risk in international markets. Wang, Zhiyan Fundamental studies of flame propagation in lean-burn natural gas engines. Wan, Qiaoqiao The role of mechanical loading in chondrocyte signaling pathways. Warrix, Adam R Management of remnant prairie ecosystems: Soil transfer, fire, and exotic species invasion.
Waters, Joseph M Exploring problematic online gaming: A qualitative approach. Watkins, Lauren E Densified collagen-fibril biomaterials for bone tissue engineering. Waziri, Ibrahim M. Weeden, George S. Wheeler, Robin E Targeted metabolomics on the shikimate and aromatic amino acid biosynthetic pathways. White, Joshua D The epistemology of enculturation. Williams, Joseph Trajectory optimization using indirect methods and parametric scramjet cycle analysis.
Williams, Natasha D African American acculturation as a mediator between childhood disciplinary experience and conflict management in adult romantic relationships. Winzeler, Hans Edwin An examination of geographic patterns of soil climate and its classification in the U. Wirbisky, Sara Elizabeth Developmental origins of neuroendocrine dysfunction associated with an embryonic atrazine exposure.
Wleklinski, Michael Preparative mass spectrometry applications in nanomaterials and organic synthesis. Wood, Mitchell A Energy transfer and localization in molecular crystals.
What would you like to read?
Wood, Paul Improving the resilience of cyber-physical systems under strategic adversaries. Woods, Daniel C On the use of mechanical and acoustical excitations for selective heat generation in polymer-bonded energetic materials. Wood, Tyler C Influence of instream habitat, water quality, and crayfish density on injury frequency in crayfish of Midwestern channelized headwater streams. Wright, Kyle J Synthesis and performance of novel supramolecular tools for single-particle cryogenic electron microscopy and drug and gene delivery. Wu, Min Studies of sulfur-based cathode materials for rechargeable lithium batteries.
Wu, Xi Antimicrobial activity of natural and mutant variants of free and immobilized antimicrobial peptides against Listeria and E. Wu, Yumeng Command shaping with constrained peak input acceleration to minimize residual vibration in a flexible-joint robot.
50 Must Read Australian Novels (The Popular Vote)
Xavier, Alencar Learning from data: Plant breeding applications of machine learning. Xiao, Min Nutrient runoff and leachate after land-application of digestate in a laboratory study using rainfall simulations. Xie, Tian Improved amorphous solid dispersion performance using binary polymer combinations. Xie, Yuesong Phase field modeling of the defect evolution and failure.
Xue, Pengcheng The relationship between protein and phosphorus digestion and retention in growing pigs and broiler chickens. Xu, Lingshan Two-particle correlation studies in heavy ion collisions at the Large Hadron Collider. Xu, Shang A platform for otakus to gradually learn and adapt to social conventions. Yadav, Shankar Modeling the impacts of movement restriction in classical swine fever outbreak control in Indiana. Yanardag Delul, Pinar Information overload in structured data.
Yan, Feifei The effects of dietary probiotic inclusion on skeletal health of poultry and its possible mechanisms. Yang, Ruiman Economic development impacts of transportation system management and operations strategies. Yang, Shih-Feng An event detection approach based on Twitter hashtags. Yang, Wei VHF lumped-element reconfigurable filters design and applications in field-programmable filter array.
Yang, Weining Improving the Eco-system of Passwords. Yang, Yang Development of novel design and control approaches for integrated crystallization operation and systems. Yan, Hui Mechanistic insight into the role of dietary fibers and short chain fatty acids in the regulation of metabolism and inflammation in the pig.
Yan, Jin Matrix-free time-domain methods for general electromagnetic analysis. Yao, Sijia Twentieth-century ideas of love in D. Lawrence and Eileen Chang. Yeum, Chul Min Computer vision-based structural assessment exploiting large volumes of images. Yim, Arnold H Homological properties of determinantal arrangements.
Spotlight science news
Yoon, Ho Jung Two essays on pharmaceutical marketing. Yoo, Yeon Joo Strategies to tackle ill-posed inverse problems in biological systems. Youn, Song-Yi Connecting through smartphones: Cognitive, social, emotional motivations, and the experience of value perceptions. Yue, Cen Strategic public relations management in China. Yu, Guimei Affinity cryo-electron microscopy: Methods development and applications.
Yu, Haonan Grounding language in video. Yu, Tianqi A case study of two-echelon multi-depot vehicle routing problem. Yu, Tong Quantifying the global N2O emissions from natural ecosystems using a mechanistically-based biogeochemistry model.
Yu, Yawen A study of the color selection workflow of web design students. Zhang, Cong Writing their way to the university: An investigation of Chinese high school students' preparation for writing in English in high schools, cram schools, and online. Zhang, Hanyin Characterization of tensile, creep, and fatigue properties of 3D printed Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene.
Zhang, Hanyu Photoelectrochemical and photophysical studies of carbon nanotube and molybdenum disulfide based light harvesting devices. Zhang, Jia An investigation of print quality defects: Psychophysical evaluation of content masking, development of web-based troubleshooting tools, and analysis of sharp roller bands. Zhang, Qian Threonine requirement and its effect on intestinal defense mechanisms in poultry.
Zhang, Ruoyang Exploring the phenomenon of Chinese babymoon tourism. Zhang, Xiaohang Cook blind: Enhancing cooking experiences for visually-impaired people. Zhang, Zhibo Developing condition-based triggers for bridge deck maintenance and rehabilitation treatments. Zhang, Zixu Metrics of critical pair identification. Zhao, Huixi Combining Markov random field and marked point process for microscopy image modeling.
Zhao, Xiaojun Forest industry byproducts improve soil quality and increase pepper growth in three soils infested with Phythophthora blight. Zhao, Yingcan Reactions of graphene oxide and buckminsterfullerene in the aquatic environment. Zhao, Yumeng Effect of different tempering methods on sorghum milling.
Zhong, Hao Dynamic lines of collaboration in e-Work systems. Zhou, Lingxuan Free edge stress analysis of laminated structures with arbitrary cross sections using mechanics of structure genome. Zhu, Hanyu Structural elucidation of deprotonated analytes via tandem mass spectrometry based on ion-molecule reactions and collision-activated dissociation.
Zhu, Ning Impact of communication appeals on recycling behaviors among undergraduate students. Zucker, Jacob D House in Winter. Zukowski, Samual R Characterization of water mediated hydrophobic and ionic interactions using Raman spectroscopy. Abell, Bradley Charles Elastic waves along a fracture intersection.
Abraham, Milata M Hydroxychloroquine dimers as inhibitors of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistant transporter and P-glycoprotein. Abu Khater, Mohammad Monitoring and control of evanescent-mode cavity filters. Adams, Jesse F Minimum hot surface ignition temperature diagnostics including infrared imagery. Afra, Reza Kinetics of polymer cyclization reaction and novel covalent dna cross-linking assays. Aghasili, Onyekachi U Fuel choice, acute respiratory infection and child growth in Uganda. Agrawal, Alok Constrained optimized command shaping for minimizing residual vibration in a flexible-joint robot.
Agrawal, Shubham Routing aspects of electric vehicle drivers and their effects on network performance. Ahmed, Karim E Phase field modeling of grain growth in porous polycrystalline solids. Ahmed, Sara Drug delivery to solid tumors via polymeric nanoparticles. Akasapu, Siddhartha Progress towards the total synthesis of aetheramide A. Akgul, Zeynep Modeling, empirics and policy implications of firm heterogeneity in international trade. Alabi, Oyeleye A Reversed phase liquid chromatography of intact monoclonal antibody, fragments and aggregates using nonporous silica particles.
Alam, S. Alaskandrani, Faisal T A threat intelligence framework for access control security in the oil industry. Albee, Barbara L Technology use of online instructors with high self-efficacy: A multiple case study.